• Joseph J. Schwartz

    1899-1975, American rabbi and politician who originally came from the Ukraine. Between 1940 and 1949 he was European director of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.
  • Protective Association for German Writers in Switzerland

    An organisation that provided writers who had emigrated to Switzerland with an organisational framework for their work in 1945 and in the years after the war.
  • Salle Pleyel,

    the largest symphony concert hall in the city of Paris, founded in 1827 by Ignaz Jozef Pleyel.
  • Saltenburg, Heinz

    1882–1948, German actor, librettist, director and theatre producer in Berlin; emigrated to Vienna in 1933 and to London in 1935. Administrator and director at the Blue Danube Club from 1943 to 1948.
  • Sassoon, Victor

    (1881-1961) was a businessman and hotel operator.
  • Scheyer, Emilie Esther

    1889 – 1945, after assuming US cititzenship in 1931, officially became Galka Scheyer. Painter and art dealer with a great influence on the US West Coast where she represented the exhibition group Die Blaue Vier, whose members were Lyonel Feininger, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee and Alexej von Jawlensky.
  • Schindel, Dora

    1915-2018, worked with Hermann M. Görgen to organise the emigration of 48 endangered persons (the Görgen group) to Brazil, worked there as a management assistant. Returned to Germany in 1955, lifelong commitment to German-Brazilian dialogue.
  • Schmirger, Gertrud

    1900 – 1975, Austrian writer who wrote historical novels for children and adults under the pseudonym Gerhart Ellert; received the Austrian National Award for Children’s Literature in 1959.
  • Schocken, Salman

    (1877-1959) businessman, publisher and patron of the arts. Starting off with a department store in Zwickau, the family built up an empire with 14 stores until the Nazis came to power in 1933. In 1931 he set up the Schocken Verlag publishing house in Berlin. He moved to Palestine in 1934 and then on to the USA where he lived in exile from 1940 onwards.
  • Schoenberner, Franz

    1892–1970, from 1929 to 1933 Editor-in-Chief of the magazine Simplicissimus, fled in 1933 to the South of France and, in 1941, with the help of Hermann Kesten and the Emergency Rescue Committee, managed to reach the USA.
  • Schönthan, Doris von

    1905-1961, journalist, photographer
  • Schuschnigg, Kurt

    1897-1977, Austrian politician; initially the Justice Minister, then the Federal Chancellor from 1934 to the annexation of Austria in March 1938. Emigrated to the USA after the war, where he took up a professorship in Constitutional Law. 1968 Return to Austria.
  • Schwarz, Paul

    1882-1951, German diplomat, Consul General in New York until 1933, dismissed after handover of power and exiled in the U.S. Financial advisor, later worked for the American intelligence service OSS (Office of Strategic Services).
  • Schwarz, Rudolf

    1905-1994, conductor and pianist. 1933 Dismissed from his post as musical director at the Landestheater (state theatre) in Karlsruhe. 1936-1941 Directed the orchestra of the Cultural Federation of German Jews in Berlin. 1943 Deported to Auschwitz, from there sent to Bergen-Belsen via the concentration camp in Sachsenhausen. Emigrated to Sweden after the war ended. Later directed several renowned symphony orchestras in Britain.
  • Schwarzenbach, Annemarie

    (1908-1942), Swiss writer and journalist, came from a family of Zurich industrialists, and was friends with Klaus and Erika Mann
  • Schwarzschild, Leopold

    (1891-1950), editor and journalist, editor of the magazine "Das Tage-Buch" during the Weimar Republic; in 1933 he founded the exile magazine "Das Neue Tage-Buch" in Paris which he ran before escaping to the United States in 1940
  • Seabrook, William

    1886-1945, American author and journalist. Was intensely interested in occultism and magic. In 1935 he married the author Marjorie Muir Worthington (1900–1976). His friends included Aldous Huxley, who organised the Sanary-Sur-Mer Garten parties in the 1930, which were frequented by many prominent guest including Thomas Mann and Lion und Marta Feuchtwanger.
  • Seidlin, Oskar

    1911-1984, scholar of German, emigrated in 1933 to Switzerland and continued on to the United States of America in 1938
  • Seyppel, Joachim

    1919-2012, German writer who initially worked as a university lecturer in the USA after the Second World War; he returned to the Federal Republic of Germany in 1961; relocated to the German Democratic Republic in 1973; returned to West Germany in 1979 as a critic of the GDR regime.
  • Shtetl

    villages in the Russian Czarist Empire mainly located in rural areas and with a mainly Jewish population.
  • Siemsen, August

    (1884-1958) socialist politician and educationalist. After fleeing to Switzerland in 1933, he moved as an expatriate to Argentina in 1936. There, Siemsen founded a school based on Pestalozzi’s educational principles and published the journal Das andere Deutschland [The Other Germany].
  • Sigurdsson, Sigrid

    Born in Oslo in 1943, studied at Hamburg University of Fine Arts. Her works explore the themes of memory and remembrance. She has cooperated with institutions such as the Osthaus Museum in Hagen and the Historical Museum in Frankfurt to create memorial installations in the form of “open archives” which house the stories and memories of the people in the region.
  • Simon, Ernst

    (1899-1988): religious philosopher, active in Frankfurt and from 1934 in Jerusalem
  • Singer, Kurt

    1885-1944, neurologist, conductor, musicologist, researcher in the field of musicians’ health. 1933 Founder of the Kulturbund Deutscher Juden in Berlin, working as a conductor and choirmaster. 1938 Emigration to the Netherlands, there once more involved in organising cultural events. 1943 Deportation to Theresienstadt, died as a result of the conditions there.
  • Socialist Workers’ Party of Germany (SAPD)

    Left-wing socialist Marxist party that existed between 1933 and 1945 and campaigned in its members’ countries of exile against the Nazis.
  • Soviet occupation zone

    SOZ, 1945-1949, also known as Eastern occupation zone, one of the four zones into which Germany was divided after the end of the Second World War was geographically the area of the later German Democratic Republic.
  • Sozialdemokratische Flüchtlingsfürsorge (Social Democratic welfare assistance for refugees)

    An aid organisation set up in Prague by the exiled leaders of the SPD (Social Democratic Party of Germany) and others
  • Spartacist uprising

    General strike and armed struggle from 5 to 12 January 1919 in Berlin. During the unrest, Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht were murdered. The November revolution was violently suppressed.
  • Spartacus League

    Association of Marxist socialists who sought to bring about an international proletarian revolution during the First World War.
  • Starr Untermeyer, Jean

    1886 – 1970, American poet and translator
  • Stein, Lilo

    1910-1997, née Salzburg, married Fred Stein in 1933, emigrated with him to New York in 1941, later became Professor for Drama and Literature
  • Steinbeck, John

    (1902-1968), American writer
  • Steinberg Verlag

    Zurich-based publishing company established in 1942 by sisters Selma and Luise Steinberg, which specialised in German-language exile literature (Klaus Mann, Max Brod, A. M. Frey) and translations of American literary works.
  • Sternfeld, Wilhelm

    1888–1973, journalist, publicist. Exile in France, Czechoslovakia and Britain. Posts included secretary of the PEN Centre of German-Speaking Authors Abroad. After the end of the war, he helped build the collection of exile literature at the Deutsche Bibliothek, the predecessor of the German National Library.
  • Stibi, Georg

    1901-1982, German communist politician and publicist, emigrated to Mexico in 1941, remigration and continued work as a publicist from 1946 in the GDR
  • Storrer-Madelung, Florianna

    1902-1997, German-Danish translator who in the 1930s worked under Otto Kleiber as the assistant editor of the features section of the Basler National-Zeitung newspaper.
  • Stratil, Karl

    1894 – 1963, graphic artist and book designer born in Moravia (Austria-Hungary), worked for publishing houses from 1920, among others for Reclam-Verlag in Leipzig
  • Suhrkamp, Peter

    1891-1959, German publisher. Directed the S. Fischer publishing house during the Nazi era and founded the Suhrkamp publishing house in 1950.