• Magen David Adom

    also MDA (literally: Red Shield of David), sister organisation oft he Intenational Red cross founded in 1930.
  • Mahler-Werfel, Alma

    1879-1964, trained composer, hostess in cultural salons in Vienna and in exile, wife of the writer Franz Werfel.
  • Mailer, Norman

    1923-2007, US writer, grew up in New York, first successes after the Second World War (The Naked and the Dead, 1948), awarded the 1969 Pulitzer Prize
  • Malraux, André

    1901-1976, writer and politician, a communist and one of France’s leading intellectuals in the 1930s; broke with communism and went on to be French minister of culture under de Gaulle from 1959 to 1969
  • Mann, Golo

    1909-1994, third eldest child of Thomas and Katia Mann, established himself following the Second World War  as one of the Federal Republic of Germany’s most important historians when he published his main work Deutsche Geschichte des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts (1958: History of Germany in the 19th and 20th Century)
  • Mann, Katia

    (1883-1980), née Pringsheim, wife of Thomas Mann
  • Mann, Nelly

    1898-1944, née Kröger, married the writer Heinrich Mann, who was 27 years her senior, in 1939, whom she had had a relationship with since 1929. Increasingly addicted to alcohol in the 1930s, she took her life with an overdose of sleeping pills on 17 December 1944 while in exile in the USA.
  • Marcuse, Ludwig

    1894-1971, philosopher and writer, lived from 1933 to 1939 in exile in Sanary-sur-Mer before ultimately moving to the USA
  • Margold, Emanuel

    1888 – 1962, artist from the Wiener Werkstätten, architect, designer and graphic artists from Vienna, was appointed to the Darmstädter Künstlerkolonie (artists‘ colony) in 1911 and worked there until 1929.
  • Marx, Julius

    1888–1970, journalist, author and businessman who lived from 1934 in Zurich where he published Kriegstagebuch eines Juden in 1939.
  • Mau Mau uprising

    Independence movement of the African population in Kenya against the colonial power Britain. The armed struggle began in 1952 and led to Kenya's independence in 1963.
  • Mayer, Hans

    1907-2001, German literary scholar. After 1933, he first lived in France, and then later on in Switzerland in exile. After the war he returned to Germany and, from 1948 to 1963 lived in the Soviet-occupied zone/GDR; following a trip to West Germany in 1963, he decided not to return to the GDR.
  • McCarthyism

    The era named after the Republican U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy (from 1947 to 1956) in which alleged communists were subjected to extensive investigation and persecution. Many liberals and artists were denounced against the backdrop of the cold war
  • Meier-Graefe, Annemarie

    1905-1994, widow of art historian Julius Meier-Graefe, who settled in 1930 in Saint-Cyr-sur-Mer; she married the writer Hermann Broch in 1949 while in American exile
  • Melzer, Margarete

    1906-1959, German actress, lived in Berlin, performed e.g. in the film M by Fritz Lang.
  • Mencken, Henry Louis

    1880-1956, American journalist and literary critic, editor of magazines The Smart Set and The American Mercury. Criticised for non-critical attitude towards Nazism, later reviled for racist, anti-Semitic remarks.

  • Méndez, Leopoldo

    1902-1969, Mexican graphic artist. Co-founder of the “Taller de Gráfica Popular”. Strongly politically engaged, participated in numerous publications for the exile publishing house El Libro Libre.
  • Millington Singe, John

    1871-1909, irischer Dramatiker und Reiseschriftsteller. Sein Werk Riders on the Sea entstand im Jahr 1904.
  • Miro, Joan

    (1893-1983), Spanish painter, graphic artist, sculptor and ceramist, was influenced by Cubism, Fauvism, Dadaism, and Surrealism and today is considered an important representative of Classic Modernism.
  • Modern Architectural Research Group,

    also known as the MARS Group, was an association of British architects which was founded in 1933 to support the Modernist architects.

  • Moissi, Maria

    née Urfus, German actress and acting tutor who worked with the Reinhardt theatres in Berlin, wife of Alexander Moissi.
  • Mondrian, Piet

    (1972-1944), Dutch Classic Modernist painter, considered the most important representative of Dutch Constructivism and concrete art.
  • Moore, Henry

    (1898-1986) British sculptor, was known for his large-scale abstractions of the human body.

  • Muche, Georg

    (1895-1987), painter and graphic designer, taught at the Bauhaus in Weimar and Dessau as well as at the Itten School in Berlin.
  • Mühsam, Erich

    1878-1934, anarchist Jewish writer. Arrested on the night of the Reichstag fire and murdered in Oranienburg Concentration Camp in 1934.
  • Münzenberg, Willy

    1889-1940, communist politician, journalist and publisher, who emigrated to Paris in 1933. Münzenberg died in unclear circumstances while escaping from an internment camp in the unoccupied South of France.
  • Ramsay MacDonald

    Twice prime minister of the United Kingdom and the first prime minister to be a member of the British workers’ party, the Labour Party.