• Aga Khan III.

    All his life the third Aga Khan (1877-1957) was the spiritual leader of the Nizārī, a part of the Islamic Ismaili community.
  • Cultural Association of Democratic Renewal in Germany

    non-partisan movement founded on 26 June 1945, later Cultural Association of the DDR
  • Cultural Federation of German Jews

    After Jewish artists were dismissed from state-run cultural facilities, Jewish initiators founded the en Cultural Federation of German Jews in 1933, in order to give them a platform. Until 1941 the Federation was tolerated by the authorities and at the same time used to isolate Jewish artists.
  • Cultural Society for Emigrants in Zurich

    An organisation that provided writers who had emigrated to Switzerland with an organisational framework for their work in 1945 and in the years after the war.
  • Évian Conference

    From 6 to 15 July 1938, 32 countries met in Évian in western France to negotiate immigration quotas and possible safe havens for Jewish refugees from the German Reich.
  • House Committee on Un-American Activities

    A committee of the United States House of Representatives; the abbreviation HUAC stands for House Un-American Activities Committee or the House Committee on Un-American Activities. The committee was active from 1934 onwards and sought out advocates of German National Socialism. Later on, the committee primarily turned its attention to Communists.
  • Kahle, Hans

    1899-1947, before 1933 a journalist and editor; one of the leading German emigrants in the Spanish Civil War; following internment in British exile, Chief of Police in from 1946 onwards
  • Kahn, Alphonse

    1908-1985, German-Jewish lawyer and resistance fighter, forced to emigrate to France in 1934.
  • Kästner, Erich

    1899–1974, German author and publisher, especially popular as an author of children’s books. His books were banned from 1933 onwards. Although he was an opponent of the Nazi regime, Kästner remained in Germany and wrote under a pseudonym.
  • Käthe Kollwitz

    1867–1945, politically active visual artist, best known for her lithographs, etchings and woodcuts. Forced to resign from the Prussian Academy of Arts by the Nazis in 1933, she was banned from exhibiting her work from 1936.
  • Kayser, Rudolf

    (1889-1964): German literary historian. Editor at the S. Fischer Publisher, and managing editor of the Neue Rundschau until 1933. Wrote a biography of his father-in-law Albert Einstein under a pseudonym. Emigrated to the Netherlands in 1933 and to New York in 1935.
  • Keren Hajessod

    globally active association that collects donations for Israel. There are three agencies in Germany alone – in Berlin, Frankfurt am Main and Munich.
  • Kikoler, Arno

    1915-1995, photographer. Trained in Berlin at Ernst Schneider’s studio. His photographs, e.g. for the newspaper C.V. Zeitung, document the everyday lives and cultural activities of Jews in Berlin between 1933 and 1936. Emigrated to Brazil in 1936. Worked as a photographer, e.g. for the newspaper A noite; later founded a toy factory.

  • Kippenberg, Anton

    1874-1950, German publisher, from 1905 head of the Insel Verlag publishing house which had been founded 6 years prior.
  • Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig

    1880–1938, German painter and graphic designer, one of the most important exponents of Expressionism.
  • Kleiber, Otto

    1883–1969, from 1919 to 1953 features editor of the Basler National-Zeitung newspaper, which during the Nazi era published numerous articles by authors who had emigrated to Switzerland.
  • Klossowski, Erich

    1875-1949, painter of German-Polish origin, lived from 1900 in France and was a fixed resident in Sanary-sur-Mer during the 1930s, had close contact to other German emigrants there
  • Koeppen, Wolfgang

    (1906-1996), writer, did not go into exile in 1933
  • Koestler, Arthur

    1905-1983, Austro-Hungarian writer, studied engineering in Vienna from 1919; member of the KPD (Communist Party of Germany) since 1931, worked in Paris from 1934-1936; war correspondent in the Spanish Civil War in 1937 and from 1940 exile in England; after publishing works of fiction and political works, focus in his writing from 1954 on the natural sciences
  • Kohner, Paul

    1902-1988, was born into a Jewish family in Teplitz-Schönau (Austria-Hungary) where his father owned a cinema. As an 18-year-old he moved to the USA with the support of Universal founder Carl Laemmle and learned the film business at his side. From 1927 to 1930 he worked as a producer in Hollywood. Afterwards he directed productions at Deutsche Universal in Berlin until 1933. After the Nazis seized power, he returned to America and worked as a producer for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, until he founded his own artists’ agency in 1938. He continued to work as its director until his death in 1988.
  • Kolb, Walter

    1902–1956, German politician, Social Democrat. Member of the Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold. Forced into retirement from 1933 and worked as a lawyer; interned several times, went underground towards the end of the war. From 1946 first freely elected lord mayor of the city of Frankfurt am Main.
  • Kolzow, Michail

    1898 - 1942, Soviet journalist and publisher, founder of the Jourgaz publishing house in Moscow, chairman of the International Commission of the Soviet Writers' Union, journalist in the Spanish civil war. Following his arrest in Moscow in 1938 he fell victim to Stalinist repression.
  • Kooga, Abrahão

    1912-2000, publisher of Russian-Jewish origin, resident in Rio de Janeiro, acquainted with Stefan Zweig since 1936, whose works he published in Portuguese
  • Korda, Alexander

    (1893-1956), Hungarian-British film producer and director, brother of Vincent Korda, lived from 1932 in London. His film The Thief of Bagdad was awarded three Oscars.

  • Korda, Vincent

    (1896-1979), Hungarian film architect and brother of Alexander Korda, lived from 1932 to 1940 in London. He won an Oscar for Best Art Direction for the film The Thief of Bagdad (1940).

  • Kreisky, Bruno

    1911–1990, Austrian social democratic politician. Chancellor of Austria from 1970 to 1983.
  • Kriegsfibel (War reader)

    During his exile, Bertolt Brecht collected newspaper articles and photographs and commented on his collection in verse. He called it his Kriegsfiebel.
  • Kundt Commission

    Named after the Nazi legation counsellor, Ernst Kundt (1897-1947), the commission had the task of locating Germans in occupied France and surrendering them to the German Reich. The Commission also visited the French internment camps.
  • Kunstenaarsvereniging De Onafhankelijken

    “The Independents” artists’ association was founded in 1912 by artists in Amsterdam against established conceptions, and campaigning for freedom in creating and exhibiting work. It was taken over by the newly formed Culture Chamber under German occupation.
  • Kunstkammer

    founded by Arthur Seyss-Inquart, the Reich Commissioner in the Netherlands in September 1941, as a mandatory umbrella association for all artists and cultural workers and their organisations in the Netherlands; however, Germans were excluded.
  • Toni Kesten

    (1904-1977), née Warowitz, wife of Hermann Kesten (married in 1929), succeeded in fleeing via Marseille and Lisbon to New York after her internment in Gurs.
  • Youth Aliyah

    Organisation, that helped children and youths to escape, mainly to England and Palestine.