• Abstraction-Création

    was a cosmopolitan group of Modernist artists founded in Paris in 1931 which existed until 1937.
  • Abusch, Alexander

    1902-1982, German journalist and publicist, emigrated to France after the Nazis came to power, continued later to Mexico; remigration to the GDR in 1946 where he became a culture functionary
  • Academic Assistance Council

    Aid organisation in England that offered assistance to scientists and academics in particular
  • Ackermann, Max

    (1887-1975), painter and graphic artist, 1936 ban on his Seminar on Absolute Painting at the Volkshochschule Stuttgart by the Nazis
  • Adorno, Theodor W.

    1903-1969, important German philosopher and sociologist, was co-founder together with Max Horkheimer (1895-1973) of the so-called Frankfurt School or Critical Theory; was Director for many years at the Frankfurt Institute of Social Research; was also a scholar of music theory and a composer
  • Affidavit of sponsorship

    also known as a moral affidavit; a kind of character reference required back then to apply for a visa to enter the USA.
  • Affidavit of Support

    Financial guarantee needed to apply for a visa in the United States.
  • Agitation

    Describes the act of influencing others politically and/or refers to political educational work and promotion in the form of speeches and publications in favour of political or social goals in order to move a large number of people to joint reaction.
  • Agnon, Samuel Joseph

    1888-1970, born in Galicia, he wrote in Hebraic. As a Zionist, he lived from 1908 onwards in Palestine.
  • Aichinger, Ilse

    born 1921, Austrian writer who lived with her mother in Vienna during Nazi rule. A “half-Jew”, as long as she was a minor, her mother was able to protect her from deportation. When she came of age, she was then kept hidden by her mother in their one-room apartment until the end of the war.
  • Aktionsgruppe Banat

    A group of German-speaking school pupils and students in Temeswar (Rumania), that published critical texts. They established themselves in 1972 and were dissolved by the secret police force Securitate in 1975.
  • Alfaro Siqueiros, David

    1896-1974, Mexican painter and graphic artist
  • American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

    A Jewish aid organisation set up in the USA in 1914 to help Jews all over the world.
  • Anderson, Robin

    also known as Robin Hay Anderson, born in 1913, British actor and writer
  • André, Etkar

    1894 – 1936, German communist politician in the KPD, resistance fighter, arrested on 5 March 1933 and executed following an unjust trial in Hamburg on 10 July 1936.
  • Antinazi-Freiheitsbewegung (Anti-Nazi Freedom Movement)

    Exile organisation of German opponents of Hitler in Columbia, 1941 – 1943
  • Aragon, Louis

    (1897-1982), French writer
  • Arendt, Hannah

    1906-1975, German-American philosopher and journalist, her main works were The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951) and Eichmann in Jerusalem. A Report on the Banality of Evil (1963) which were much-discussed contributions towards examining fascism under the Nazis
  • Arp, Hans

    (1886-1966), French-German painter, considered one of the most important representatives of Dadaism and Surrealism. He was a member of the Abstraction-Création group.

  • Arx, Cäsar von

    1895–1949, Swiss playwright and director, wrote above all historical dramas and festival plays. In 1938 he helped Kaiser to go into exile in Switzerland.
  • Asch, Schalom

    1880-1957, Yiddish writer, emigrated from Poland via Southern to the USA, had regular contact during his time in Nice with the emigrants living there; several translations of his books were published by German exile publishers.
  • Asquith, Margot

    1864 – 1945,  Countess of Oxford and Asquith, British writer and wife of British Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith
  • Auden, Wystan H.

    (1907-1973), English writer/poet. In 1935, he married Erika Mann. Auden moved in 1939 to New York, in 1946 he took US citizenship.
  • Aurora-Verlag

    An exile publishing house founded by Wieland Herzfelde, among others, in 1944 in the USA.
  • Ausländer, Rose

    1901–1988, a Jewish lyricist from Bukovina who spoke German and English; she also lived in Austria-Hungary, Romania, the USA, Austria and Germany.
  • Ávila Camacho, Manuel

    1897-1955, Mexican politician and brigadier general, from 1940-1946 President of the Republic of Mexico.
  • Georg Friedrich Alexan

    (1901-1995), writer and journalist, who moved from Germany to Paris in 1931, was born Georg Kupfermann.