• East-West controversy

    also referred to as cold war controversy, tension between the victorious powers of the second world war, the Soviet Union and the United States, which also had an impact on the occupation zones and the two German states, and West Berlin.
  • Olden, Rudolf

    1885-1940, lawyer, journalist and secretary of Exile PEN. After the Reichstag fire in 1933, he escaped into exile. Olden died during the crossing from England to Canada when his ship was sunk by a German submarine.  
  • Oprecht, Emil

    1895-1952, important Swiss publisher of German-language exile literature, helped numerous emigrated artists to flee from the Nazis.
  • Oprecht, Emmie

    1899-1990, née Fehlmann, wife of Swiss publisher Emil Oprecht, was active during the Second World War taking care of German-speaking emigrants.
  • Orwell, George

    1903-1950, English writer, fought in the Spanish Civil War from 1937 and was seriously injured
  • O’Keeffe, Georgia

    1887-1986, one of the USA’s most famous female painters of the 20th century, painted on the threshold to abstract art, repeatedly used erotic motifs